DOI: 10.1002/fsn3.3637 ISSN:

Sensorial, textural, and rheological analysis of novel pistachio‐based chocolate formulations by quantitative descriptive analysis

Morad Mousazadeh, Mohammad Mousavi, Zahra Emam‐Djomeh, Salar Ali Ahmed, Mehri Hadinezhad, Hamed Hassanzadeh
  • Food Science


Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate the effects of pistachio oil (7.5 and 15%), xanthan gum (0 and 0.3%), distillated monoglyceride (0.5 and 1%), and cocoa butter (7.5 and 15%) on the sensorial descriptors of spread based on pistachio oil. The response variables were the most significant spread texture attributes: hardness, graininess, meltability, adhesiveness to spoon, adhesiveness to mouth, spreadability, fluidity, and oiliness. PCA revealed that the first two principal components explained 90% or more of the variance between the data. The first principal component was dominated by the descriptors' adhesiveness and hardness on the positive side and the descriptors' oiliness and fluidness on the negative side. The descriptor spreadability had a high positive loading on the second principal component. Herschel–Balkley and power law models were fitted to confirm the sensory evaluation results on different formulations. In the current research, the power law model seemed to be more accurate for fitting the samples. In terms of the selected texture attributes determined by the sensory evaluation, using component plot, the optimum combination of variables was found as follows: 15 pistachio oil, 7.5% cocoa butter, 0.3% xanthan gum, and 1% distilled monoglyceride that produced desirable spreads that mimic commercial spread.

More from our Archive