Seismic Exploration Methods for Structural Studies and for Active Fault Characterization: A ReviewPier Paolo G. Bruno
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
- Computer Science Applications
- Process Chemistry and Technology
- General Engineering
- General Materials Science
In this paper, seismic exploration methods are reviewed with a particular emphasis on the use of the reflection seismology to investigate the subsurface structures and characterize active faults. The paper provides a descriptive overview, intended for a non-specialist audience, of the methods and of their recent developments aimed at improving the resolution, accuracy, and computational efficiency of seismic imaging. Techniques such as seismic ray tomography, full-waveform inversion and pre-stack depth migration are briefly introduced, highlighting their potential applications in structural geology studies. The main seismic attributes that have become increasingly important in the interpretation of faults and fractures are also presented, along with some examples of application. Finally, some case studies of active fault characterization are discussed. From these examples, the crucial role played nowadays by the seismic exploration methods for structural studies and for active fault characterization is evident.