Role of First Trimester Screening Biochemical Markers to Predict Hypertensive Pregnancy Disorders and SGA Neonates—A Narrative ReviewWojciech Górczewski, Joanna Górecka, Magdalena Massalska-Wolska, Magdalena Staśkiewicz, Dariusz Borowski, Hubert Huras, Magda Rybak-Krzyszkowska
- Health Information Management
- Health Informatics
- Health Policy
- Leadership and Management
Early recognition of high-risk pregnancies through biochemical markers may promote antenatal surveillance, resulting in improved pregnancy outcomes. The goal of this study is to evaluate the possibilities of using biochemical markers during the first trimester of pregnancy in the prediction of hypertensive pregnancy disorders (HPD) and the delivery of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates. A comprehensive search was conducted on key databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, for articles relating to the use of biochemical markers in the prediction of HPD and SGA. The findings show that changes in the levels of biomarkers in the early pregnancy phases could be an important indicator of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The literature shows that low PAPP-A (pregnancy-associated plasma protein A) and PlGF (placental growth factor) levels, low alkaline phosphatase (AP), higher sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like Tyrosine Kinase-1) levels, higher AFP (alfa fetoprotein) levels, and elevated levels of inflammatory markers such as β-HGC (free beta human chorionic gonadotropin), interferon-gamma (INF-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may be associated with risks including the onset of HPD, fetal growth restriction (FGR), and delivery of SGA neonates. Comparatively, PAPP-A and PlGF appear to be the most important biochemical markers for the prediction of SGA and HPD.