DOI: 10.3390/plants12162993 ISSN:

Rhizosphere Microbiome and Phenolic Acid Exudation of the Healthy and Diseased American Ginseng Were Modulated by the Cropping History

Jiahui Zhang, Yanli Wei, Hongmei Li, Jindong Hu, Zhongjuan Zhao, Yuanzheng Wu, Han Yang, Jishun Li, Yi Zhou
  • Plant Science
  • Ecology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

The infection of soil-borne diseases has the potential to modify root exudation and the rhizosphere microbiome. However, the extent to which these modifications occur in various monocropping histories remains inadequately explored. This study sampled healthy and diseased American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) plants under 1–4 years of monocropping and analyzed the phenolic acids composition by HPLC, microbiome structure by high-throughput sequencing technique, and the abundance of pathogens by quantitative PCR. First, the fungal pathogens of Fusarium solani and Ilyonectria destructans in the rhizosphere soil were more abundant in the diseased plants than the healthy plants. The healthy American ginseng plants exudated more phenolic acid, especially p-coumaric acid, compared to the diseased plants after 1–2 years of monocropping, while this difference gradually diminished with the increase in monocropping years. The pathogen abundance was influenced by the exudation of phenolic acids, e.g., total phenolic acids (r = −0.455), p-coumaric acid (r = −0.465), and salicylic acid (r = −0.417), and the further in vitro test confirmed that increased concentration of p-coumaric acid inhibited the mycelial growth of the isolated pathogens for root rot. The healthy plants had a higher diversity of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal microbiome than the diseased plants only after a long period of monocropping. Our study has revealed that the cropping history of American ginseng has altered the effect of pathogens infection on rhizosphere microbiota and root exudation.

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