DOI: 10.3390/jpm13081256 ISSN:

Retrospective Analysis of the Airway Space Changes in Dentofacial Deformity after Two-Jaw Orthognathic Surgery Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Víctor Ravelo, Gabriela Olate, Alejandro Unibazo, Márcio de Moraes, Sergio Olate
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)

Orthognathic surgery is used to modify anomalies in maxillomandibular position; this process can significantly affect the anatomy of the airway and cause functional changes. This study aims to define the impact of mandibular maxillary movement on the airway of subjects with dentofacial deformity. A retrospective study was conducted on subjects with Angle class II (CII group) and Angle class III (CIII group) dentofacial deformities. The subjects were treated via bimaxillary surgery; for all of them, planning was performed with software and 3D printing. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was obtained 21 days before surgery and 6 months after surgery and was used for planning and follow-up with the same conditions and equipment. Was used the superimposition technique to obtain the maximum and minimum airway areas and total airway volume. The data were analyzed with the Shapiro–Wilk test and Student’s t-test, while Spearman’s test was used to correlate the variables, considering a value of p < 0.05. Thus, 76 subjects aged 18 to 55 years (32.38 ± 10.91) were included: 46 subjects were in CII group, treated with a maxillo-mandibular advancement, and 30 subjects were in the CIII group, treated with a maxillary advancement and a mandibular setback. In the CII group, a maxillary advancement of +2.45 mm (±0.88) and a mandibular advancement of +4.25 mm (±1.25) were observed, with a significant increase in all the airway records. In the CIII group, a maxillary advancement of +3.42 mm (±1.25) and a mandibular setback of −3.62 mm (±1.18) were noted, with no significant changes in the variables measured for the airway (p > 0.05). It may be concluded that maxillo-mandibular advancement is an effective procedure to augment the airway area and volume in the CII group. On the other hand, in subjects with mandibular prognathism and Angle class III operated with the maxillary advancement and mandibular setback lower than 4 mm, it is possible to not reduce the areas and volume in the airway.

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