DOI: 10.1161/jaha.123.030559 ISSN: 2047-9980

Resting Heart Rate Independent of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Is Associated With End‐Stage Renal Disease: A Cohort Study Based on 476 347 Adults

Min‐Kuang Tsai, Wayne Gao, Kuo‐Liong Chien, Thu Win Kyaw, Chin‐Kun Baw, Chih‐Cheng Hsu, Chi‐Pang Wen
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


The relationship between resting heart rate (RHR) and the risk of end‐stage renal disease (ESRD) among those without cardiovascular disease remains unclear. We aim to establish temporal consistency and elucidate the independent relationship between RHR and the risk of ESRD.

Methods and Results

This cohort enrolled participants from 476 347 individuals who had taken part in a screening program from 1996 to 2017. We identified 2504 participants who had ESRD, and the median follow‐up was 13 years. RHR was extracted from electrocardiography results, and the study assessed the relationship between RHR and the risk of ESRD using the Cox proportional hazards model. Of the participants, 32.6% had an RHR of 60 to 69 beats per minute (bpm), and 22.2% had an RHR of ≥80 bpm. Participants with an RHR of ≥80 bpm had a higher stage of chronic kidney disease, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, and more proteinuria than those with an RHR of 60 to 69 bpm. Participants with an RHR of 80 to 89 and ≥90 bpm had a 24% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24 [95% CI, 1.09–1.42]) and 64% (HR, 1.64 [95% CI, 1.42–1.90]) higher risk of ESRD, respectively. The risk of ESRD remained significantly elevated (HR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.10–1.58] per 10‐beat increase from 60 bpm) after excluding participants who smoked; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; or were overweight.


An RHR of ≥80 bpm is significantly associated with an increased risk of ESRD. These results suggest that RHR may serve as a risk factor for kidney disease in individuals without established cardiovascular disease risk factors.

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