Chengrui Yu, Xiaonan Jiang, Fanlu Wu, Yao Fu, Yu Zhang, Xiangzhi Li, Tianjiao Fu, Junyan Pei

Research on Vehicle Detection in Infrared Aerial Images in Complex Urban and Road Backgrounds

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Signal Processing
  • Control and Systems Engineering

The detection of vehicle targets in infrared aerial remote sensing images captured by drones presents challenges due to a significant imbalance in vehicle distribution, complex backgrounds, the large scale of vehicles, and the dense and arbitrarily oriented distribution of targets. The RYOLOv5_D model is proposed based on the YOLOv5-obb rotation model. Firstly, we reconstruct a new vehicle remote sensing dataset, BalancedVehicle, to achieve data balance. Secondly, given the challenges of complex backgrounds in infrared remote sensing images, the AAHE method is proposed to highlight infrared remote sensing vehicle targets while reducing background interference during the detection process. Moreover, in order to address the issue of detecting challenges under complex backgrounds, the CPSAB attention mechanism is proposed, which could be used together with DCNv2. GSConv is also used to reduce the model parameters while ensuring accuracy. This combination could improve the model’s generalization ability and, consequently, enhance the detection accuracy for various vehicle categories. The RYOLOv5s_D model, trained on the self-built dataset BalancedVehicle, demonstrates a notable improvement in its mean average precision (mAP), increasing from 73.6% to 78.5%. Specifically, the average precision (AP) for large aspect ratio vehicles such as trucks and freight cars increases by 11.4% and 8%, respectively. The RYOLOv5m_D and RYOLOv5l_D models achieve accuracies of 82.6% and 84.3%. The Param of RYOLOv5_D is similar to that of the YOLOv5-obb, while possessing a decrease in computational complexity of 0.6, 4.5, and 12.8GFLOPS. In conclusion, the RYOLOv5_D model’s superior accuracy and real-time capabilities in infrared remote sensing vehicle scenarios are validated by comparing various advanced models based on rotation boxes on the BalancedVehicle dataset.

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