Research on Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Ducted Propeller Hovering near the Water Surface Based on a Lattice Boltzmann MethodYifeng Zhao, Lingbo Geng, Yi Yang, Zhiqiang Hu
- Ocean Engineering
- Water Science and Technology
- Civil and Structural Engineering
Water–air cross-domain vehicles (CDVs) are capable of both flight and underwater navigation, showing broad prospects in marine science, such as underwater observation, disaster response, and rescue operations. It is crucial to investigate the dynamic performance of CDVs hovering above water surfaces to enhance safety and stability. In this study, the performance of a CDV’s ducted propeller hovering at various heights above a water surface was analyzed via computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and thrust tests. The results indicate that the air–water mixture formed by the wake of the propeller impacting the water surface is sucked in by the duct, causing the propeller to enter an unstable vortex ring state. At the same rotation speed in the air, the thrust of the propeller system decreases and the required power increases. With an increase in the height of the propeller above the water surface, the thrust and power return to normal. Furthermore, a numerical model was proposed to express the correlation among thrust, propeller rotation speed, and distance from the water surface. This study establishes a foundation for the dynamic modeling of CDVs and can be utilized by other related studies.