DOI: 10.1002/adfm.202303480 ISSN: 1616-301X

Recent Advances in Electrocatalysts for Efficient Nitrate Reduction to Ammonia

Di Liu, Lulu Qiao, Shuyang Peng, Haoyun Bai, Chunfa Liu, Weng Fai Ip, Kin Ho Lo, Hongchao Liu, Kar Wei Ng, Shuangpeng Wang, Xiaozhan Yang, Hui Pan
  • Electrochemistry
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Biomaterials
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials


Ammonia as an irreplaceable chemical has been widely demanded to keep the sustainable development of the modern society. However, its industrial production consumes huge energy and releases extraordinary green‐house gases, leading to various environmental issues. To achieve the green production of ammonia is a great challenge that has been extensively pursued recently. In the review, a most promising strategy, electrochemical nitrate reduction reaction (e‐NO3RR) for the purpose is comprehensively investigated to give a full understanding of its development and mechanism and provide guidance for future directions. Particularly, the development of electrocatalysts is focused to realize the high ammonia yield rate and Faraday efficiency for industrial applications. The recent‐developed catalysts, including noble metallic materials, alloys, metal compounds, single‐metal‐atom catalysts, and metal‐free materials, are systematically discussed to review the effects of various factors on the catalytic performance in e‐NO3RR. Accordingly, the strategies, including defects engineering, coordination environment modulating, surface controlling, and hybridization, are carefully discussed to improve the catalytic performance, such as the intrinsic activity and selectivity. Finally, perspectives and challenges are given out. This review shall provide insightful guidance on the development of advanced catalytic systems for the production of green ammonia efficiently in the industry.

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