DOI: 10.1515/jcim-2023-0221 ISSN: 2194-6329

Preliminary data on cytotoxicity and functional group assessment of a herb–mineral combination against colorectal carcinoma cell line

Remya Jayakumar, Manoj Kumar Dash, Saumya Gulati, Akanksha Pandey, Surendra Kumar Trigun, Namrata Joshi
  • Complementary and alternative medicine



The invasive screening methods and the late stage diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) are contributing for the devastative prognosis. The gradual shift of the disease pattern among younger generations requires the implementation of phytochemicals and traditional medicines. Arkeshwara rasa (AR) is a herb–mineral combination of Tamra bhasma/incinerated copper ashes and Dwigun Kajjali/mercury sulphide levigated with Calotropis procera leaf juice, Plumbago zeylanica root decoction and the decoction of three myrobalans (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Emblica Officinalis decoction)/Triphala decoction.


The SW-480 cell line was checked for the cytotoxicity and the cell viability criteria with MTT(3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) assay. The acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) assay revealed the depth of apoptosis affected cells in the fluorescent images. The FTIR analysis exhibited the graphical spectrum of functional groups within the compound AR.


The IC50 from the 10−7 to 10−3 concentrations against SW-480 cells was 40.4 μg/mL. The staining of AO/EtBr was performed to visualize live and dead cells and it is evident from the result that number of apoptotic cells increases at increasing concentration of AR. The single bond with stretch vibrations of O–H and N–H are more concentrated in the 2,500–3,200 cm−1 and 3,700–4,000 cm−1 of the spectra whereas, the finger print region carries the O–H and S=O type peaks.


The AR shows strong cyto-toxicity against the SW-480 cells by inducing apoptosis. It also modulates cellular metabolism with the involvement of functional groups which antagonizes the strong acids. Moreover, these effects need to be analyzed further based in the in vivo and various in vitro models.

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