DOI: 10.1515/dmpt-2023-0035 ISSN: 2363-8915

Phytochemical profiling and biological activities of Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw.: an edible vegetable fern

Kirti Raina, Alisha Chaudhary, Purnima Sharma, Rohit Sharma, Kanchan Bhardwaj, Pardeep Kumar, Atul Kabra, Sunil Thakur, Ashun Chaudhary, Mamta Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati, Rajeev K. Singla, Rohit Sharma
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics



Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. is an edible vegetable fern of the Himalayan region with high nutritional and therapeutic value owing to its richness in various secondary metabolites and both macro and micronutrients.


This updated review discusses the general traditional use, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, nutritional value, pharmacology, and toxicity concerns of D. esculentum.


The plant parts, viz. rhizomes, shoots, fronds and leaves, have immense ethnomedicinal importance, being traditionally used to cure several health disorders. Among other pharmacological effects, this botanical reveals excellent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-leishmanial, antioxidant, anaphylactic, antipyretic, anthelmintic and hepatoprotective activities, directly attributed to the presence of many secondary metabolites. From a pharmacological point of view, the excellent antioxidant potential of D. esculentum suggests its promising use for nutraceutical or functional food formulation purposes.


Considering the evidences on popular ethnomedicinal uses of D. esculentum as an edible vegetable, its immense bio-potential, and multiple pharmacological roles, there is a huge need to evaluate its therapeutic applications in light of standard clinical trials.

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