DOI: 10.3390/antiox13030345 ISSN: 2076-3921

Phytochemical Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Albanian Juniperus communis and Juniperus oxycedrus Berries and Needle Leaves Extracts

Ilir Mërtiri, Bogdan Păcularu-Burada, Nicoleta Stănciuc
  • Cell Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology

This paper aims to investigate the phytochemical profile and in vitro antibacterial activity of two juniper species collected in Albania, Juniperus communis and Juniperus oxycedrus. The berries and the needle leaves were subjected to solid–liquid solvent ultrasound-assisted extraction. The phytochemical characterization of the extracts was performed by spectrophotometric and chromatographic means. The extract of J. communis berries (JcB) showed a higher total phenolic and flavonoid content (3.04 ± 0.09 mg GAE/g DW, and 1.14 ± 0.36 mg QE/g DW, respectively), also a higher antioxidant activity from DPPH and ABTS radical screening assays, compared to J. oxycedrus berries (JoxB) extract. The extract of J. oxycedrus needle leaves (JoxL) prevailed in total flavonoid content (10.55 ± 0.24 mg QE/g DW), and ABTS assays (1.83 ± 0.01 mM TE/g DW), compared to the extract of J. communis needle leaves (JcL). The chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of ellagic acid and kaempferol in all the samples. Ellagic acid was the main identified compound with the highest quantity in the extracts of JoxB, JoxL, and JcB with an average of 445.69 ± 0.96 µg/g, 2890.05 ± 0.29 µg/g, and 8133.83 ± 4.03 µg/g, respectively. The antibacterial potential of the ethanolic extracts was evaluated on Bacillus spp., Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. In the Agar Well Diffusion Assay, it was observed that all the tested bacterial strains were sensitive to the extracts, whereas selected extracts showed a similar inhibition activity rate compared with the antibiotic substance (Chloramphenicol), used as a positive control. The extracts showed a similar minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentration for the individual bacterial strains, suggesting that J. communis and J. oxycedrus extracts have a similar potential in antibacterial activity.

More from our Archive