DOI: 10.1002/tqem.22198 ISSN: 1088-1913

Optimizing indoor air quality: Investigating particulate matter exposure in household kitchens and source identification

Nawaf S. Alhajeri, Alanood M. Alrashidi, Mohamed F. Yassin, Layla Al‐Awadi
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution
  • Waste Management and Disposal


Indoor environments pose a significant health risk due to exposure to particulate matter (PM), leading to various diseases and premature deaths, and raising public concerns about indoor air quality. Household kitchens are a major contributor to indoor air pollution, emitting particulate matter of varying sizes during cooking, which disperses throughout the house. Understanding the extent of PM exposure and identifying its sources is crucial. This study assesses PM presence in Kuwaiti household kitchens, measuring concentrations of different‐sized particles (PM 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10 μm) under various conditions. Measurements were taken for 24 h using a particle/mass monitor device, considering different ventilation scenarios, cooking oils, and methods. Spearman's rank correlation and indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios investigate the correlation between indoor and outdoor PM exposure. Principal component analysis (PCA) models identify specific sources contributing to PM exposure. A questionnaire survey in Kuwaiti households determines primary kitchen sources during cooking. Results show that kitchens with ventilation systems consistently reduce PM concentrations. PM emissions during cooking vary based on factors like cooking method, energy type, cooking oil, food, additives, temperature, and ventilation. The cooking stove is the primary emission source, but other household activities contribute. This study enhances our understanding of influential factors affecting cooking emissions and their concentrations, contributing valuable insights into mitigating indoor air pollution.

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