DOI: 10.3390/molecules28134932 ISSN: 1420-3049

Nanotechnology–General Aspects: A Chemical Reduction Approach to the Synthesis of Nanoparticles

Paulina Szczyglewska, Agnieszka Feliczak-Guzik, Izabela Nowak
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmaceutical Science

The role of nanotechnology is increasingly important in our society. Through it, scientists are acquiring the ability to understand the structure and properties of materials and manipulate them at the scale of atoms and molecules. Nanomaterials are at the forefront of the rapidly growing field of nanotechnology. The synthesis of nanostructured materials, especially metallic nanoparticles, has attracted tremendous interest over the past decade due to their unique properties, making these materials excellent and indispensable in many areas of human activity. These special properties can be attributed to the small size and large specific surface area of nanoparticles, which are very different from those of bulk materials. Nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes are needed for many applications, so a variety of protocols are required to produce monodisperse nanoparticles with controlled morphology. The purpose of this review is firstly to introduce the reader to the basic aspects related to the field of nanotechnology and, secondly, to discuss metallic nanoparticles in greater detail. This article explains the basic concepts of nanotechnology, introduces methods for synthesizing nanoparticles, and describes their types, properties, and possible applications. Of many methods proposed for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles, a chemical reduction is usually preferred because it is easy to perform, cost-effective, efficient, and also allows control of the structural parameters through optimization of the synthesis conditions. Therefore, a chemical reduction method is discussed in more detail—each factor needed for the synthesis of nanoparticles by chemical reduction is described in detail, i.e., metal precursors, solvents, reducing agents, and stabilizers. The methods that are used to characterize nanomaterials are described. Finally, based on the available literature collection, it is shown how changing the synthesis parameters/methods affects the final characteristics of nanoparticles.

More from our Archive