DOI: 10.3390/ani13233714 ISSN: 2076-2615

Modulation of In Vitro Macrophage Responses via Primary and Secondary Bile Acids in Dogs

Alison C. Manchester, Lyndah Chow, William Wheat, Steven Dow
  • General Veterinary
  • Animal Science and Zoology

Bile acids (BA) are important metabolites secreted into the intestinal lumen and impacted by luminal microbes and dietary intake. Prior studies in humans and rodents have shown that BAs are immunologically active and that primary and secondary BAs have distinct immune properties. Therefore, the composition of the gut BA pool may influence GI inflammatory responses. The current study investigated the relative immune modulatory properties of primary (cholic acid, CA) and secondary BAs (lithocholic acid, LCA) by assessing their effects on canine macrophage cytokine secretion and BA receptor (TGR5) expression. In addition, RNA sequencing was used to further interrogate how CA and LCA differentially modulated macrophage responses to LPS (lipopolysaccharide). We found that exposure to either CA or LCA influenced LPS-induced cytokine production via macrophages similarly, with suppression of TNF-α secretion and enhancement of IL-10 secretion. Neither BA altered the expression of the BA receptor TGR5. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that CA activated inflammatory signaling pathways in macrophages involving type II interferon signaling and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, whereas LCA activated pathways related to nitric oxide signaling and cell cycle regulation. Thus, we concluded that both primary and secondary BAs are active modulators of macrophage responses in dogs, with differential and shared effects evident with sequencing analysis.

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