DOI: 10.1111/iwj.14733 ISSN: 1742-4801

Metabolism, fibrosis, and apoptosis: The effect of lipids and their derivatives on keloid formation

Chen‐yu Li, Ru‐xin Xie, Shi‐wei Zhang, Jiao Yun, Ai Zhong, Ying Cen, Jun‐jie Chen
  • Dermatology
  • Surgery


Keloids, pathological scars resulting from skin trauma, have traditionally posed significant clinical management challenges due to their persistence and high recurrence rates. Our research elucidates the pivotal roles of lipids and their derivatives in keloid development, driven by underlying mechanisms of abnormal cell proliferation, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix deposition. Key findings suggest that abnormalities in arachidonic acid (AA) synthesis and non‐essential fatty acid synthesis are integral to keloid formation. Further, a complex interplay exists between lipid derivatives, notably butyric acid (BA), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), and the regulation of hyperfibrosis. Additionally, combinations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with BA and 15‐deoxy‐Δ12,14‐Prostaglandin J2 have exhibited pronounced cytotoxic effects. Among sphingolipids, ceramide (Cer) displayed limited pro‐apoptotic effects in keloid fibroblasts (KFBs), whereas sphingosine 1‐phosphate (S1P) was found to promote keloid hyperfibrosis, with its analogue, FTY720, demonstrating contrasting benefits. Both Vitamin D and hexadecylphosphorylcholine (HePC) showed potential antifibrotic and antiproliferative properties, suggesting their utility in keloid management. While keloids remain a prevalent concern in clinical practice, this study underscores the promising potential of targeting specific lipid molecules for the advancement of keloid therapeutic strategies.

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