DOI: 10.1177/09612033231218957 ISSN: 0961-2033

Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: Case report and literature review

Laura Dans Vilán, Raquel Ríos Fernández, Sergio Fernández Ontiveros, Miguel Suárez Robles, Mercedes Caba Molina, Marta García Morales, Francisco Javier De la Hera, Norberto Ortego Centeno, Jose Luis Callejas Rubio
  • Rheumatology

Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a rare form of interstitial pulmonary disease, which has been described in association with a wide range of autoimmune disorders. Although the association of this entity with Sjogren’s syndrome is well known, only a few cases are reported in relation to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this paper is to review the cases reported in literature to date, as well as to describe the characteristics of these patients including the new case presented herein. We will be focusing on the case of a 36-year-old female patient diagnosed with SLE on hydroxychloroquine treatment who develops pleuritic chest pain and progressive dyspnea after 3 years of follow-up. The chest CT scan showed pleural thickening and both multiple and bilateral micronodules. A lung biopsy was also performed, revealing an infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and histiocytes in the alveolar septa suggestive of LIP. After conducting a review of the literature, we identified seven other cases describing SLE in association with LIP. The majority of them were young women, and LIP tends to appear early in the course of the disease, even as a form of initial presentation in some cases. Symptoms included cough, dyspnea, and pleuritic pain, with the exception of one case which was asymptomatic. It is noteworthy that half of the patients were positive for anti-SSA/anti-SSB autoantibodies, and some of them also met criteria for Sjogren’s syndrome. Treatment with steroids and other immunosuppressive agents improved symptoms in all of them.

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