DOI: 10.3390/min13070841 ISSN: 2075-163X

Links between Ikaite Morphology, Recrystallised Ikaite Petrography and Glendonite Pseudomorphs Determined from Polar and Deep-Sea Ikaite

Bo Schultz, Jennifer Huggett, Clemens Ullmann, Heidemarie Kassens, Martin Kölling
  • Geology
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Petrography of recrystallised ikaite from Ocean Drilling Program material has been presented previously from Nankai Trough and Congo (ex-Zaire) deep-sea fan. This paper expands on the Nankai Trough ikaite observations, drawing on evidence from Laptev Sea, South Georgia, Okhotsk Sea, and coastal lagoon Point Barrow. However, even though many ikaite and glendonite sites occur at high latitudes, it cannot be that ikaite forms exclusively in polar environments, as demonstrated by the occurrences in the low latitude low temperature deep sea sediments offshore Gulf of Guinea (Angola Congo) and mid-latitude deep-sea trenches offshore Japan. Recrystallised ikaite occurs as mm large, zoned calcite crystals in all samples, along with secondary phases of calcite. Our data set is unique in that the origin, storage, and recrystallisation process of natural formed ikaite is recorded in detail and confirms that glendonite petrographic characteristics are a consequence of the structure and chemistry of recrystallising ikaite and not the physical or geochemical environment. The transformation of man-made ikaite to calcite as recorded in laboratory studies, is a process very similar to the one we have observed for natural ikaite. Most significant is that there is variation in the order of the calcite types within a single sample, leading to the conclusion that the variation is a consequence of impurities and geochemical variability in the ikaite, not the external environment. Morphological observations reveal similarities in ikaite and glendonite, this and the similarity in internal textures in glendonite and recrystallised ikaite confirms that glendonite may be used as an indicator of past presence of ikaite.

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