DOI: 10.3390/ijms242317013 ISSN: 1422-0067

Lanthanide Contraction in LnF3 (Ln = Ce-Lu) and Its Chemical and Structural Consequences: Part 1: Location of YF3 in the LnF3 Series According to Its Chemical and Structural Characteristics

Boris P. Sobolev, Elena A. Sulyanova
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Spectroscopy
  • Molecular Biology
  • General Medicine
  • Catalysis

A lanthanide contraction(LC) of 14 lanthanides (Ln) from 58Ce to 71Lu consists of the interaction of Ln nucleus with 4f-electrons. Rare earth elements (REEs—R) include Sc, Y, La, and 14 Ln. They are located in 4–6th periods of the subgroup of group III. The electronic structure divides R into short (d- Sc, Y, La) and long (14 f-elements Ce-Lu) homologous series. The most important chemical consequence of LC is the creation of a new conglomerate of 16 RF3 by mixing fluorides of d- (Y, La) and f-elements. This determines the location of YF3 among LnF3. The location of YF3 depends on the structural (formula volumes—Vform) and thermochemical (temperatures and heats of phase transformations, phase diagrams) properties. The location of YF3 between HoF3 and ErF3 was determined by Vform at a standard pressure (Pst) and temperature (Tst). The location of YF3 according to heats of phase transformations ΔHfus and ΔHtrans is in a dimorphic structural subgroup (SSGr) D (Ln = Er-Lu), but without the exact “pseudo ZY”. According to the temperatures of phase transformations (Ttrans) in LnF3 (Ln = Dy-Lu), YF3 is located in the SSGr D between ErF3 and TmF3. The ErF3-YF3 and YF3-TmF3 phase diagrams show it to be between ErF3 and TmF3. The crystals of five β-LnF3 (Ln = Ho-Lu) and β-YF3 were obtained in identical conditions and their crystal structures were studied. Vform (at Pst and Tst) with “pseudo” atomic number ZY = 67.42 was calculated from the unit cell parameters, which were defined with ±5 × 10−4 Å accuracy. It determines the location of YF3 between HoF3 and ErF3.

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