DOI: 10.3390/fractalfract7080602 ISSN: 2504-3110

Investigating the Effects of a Fractional Operator on the Evolution of the ENSO Model: Bifurcations, Stability and Numerical Analysis

Yuqi Zhang, Peiluan Li, Changjin Xu, Xueqing Peng, Rui Qiao
  • Statistics and Probability
  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Analysis

Recent years have seen an increase in scientific interest in the El Nio/La Nia Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a quasiperiodic climate phenomenon that takes place throughout the tropical Pacific Ocean over five years and causes significant harm. It is associated with the warm oceanic stage known as El Nio and the cold oceanic stage known as La Nia. In this research, the ENSO model is considered under a fractional operator, which is defined via a nonsingular and nonlocal kernel. Some theoretical features, such as equilibrium points and their stability, bifurcation maps, the existence of a unique solution via the Picard–Lindelof approach, and the stability of the solution via the Ulam–Hyres stability approach, are deliberated for the proposed ENSO model. The Adams–Bashforth numerical method, associated with Lagrangian interpolation, is used to obtain a numerical solution for the considered ENSO model. The complex dynamics of the ENSO model are displayed for a few fractional orders via MATLAB-18.

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