DOI: 10.1111/inm.13294 ISSN: 1445-8330

Intimate partner violence in the lives of Indigenous and Black women in the upper Midwest of the United States during the COVID‐19 pandemic: A mixed‐methods protocol examining help‐seeking behaviours and experiences

Alexa A. Lopez, Anne Dressel, Jeneile Luebke, Joni Williams, Jennifer Campbell, Jessica Miller, Jennifer Kibicho, Diane Schadewald, Hanan Abusbaitan, Anna Pirsch, Kaboni W. Gondwe, Erin Schubert, Ashley Ruiz, Peninnah Kako, Lucy Mkandawire‐Valhmu, Leonard E. Egede
  • Pshychiatric Mental Health


Violent behaviour perpetrated against women has long‐lasting negative physical and mental health consequences for women, their children, their families, and their communities. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with many adverse physical, psychological, and emotional consequences. Structural racism and historical trauma affect women's trust and further hinder the ability of Indigenous and Black women to seek help after experiencing IPV. The availability of IPV support services, which can include shelter, food, group therapy, legal assistance, and advocacy, can be inaccessible to women due to the inability to access often limited resources in urban environments and reasons compounded by potential geographic distance if living in rural areas or living in community. Understanding the unique reasons why Indigenous and Black women do not seek help, and the barriers they experience when seeking help after IPV, is critical. Pandemics have the potential to create further complexities on how IPV is experienced. Black and Indigenous women experiencing IPV were therefore at even greater risk for IPV‐related harm because of state and local “stay at home” measures put in place to minimise the spread COVID‐19. The purpose of this manuscript is to explicate the methods for a large R01 study in the Upper Midwest.

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