Clément Poirault, Alice Hadchouel, Charlotte Roy, Sophie Schmartz, Apolline Gonsard, Nicolas Garcelon, Christophe Delacourt, David Drummond

Inflammatory rebound and postinfectious inflammatory response in children with pleural infection: A single‐center retrospective study

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology and Child Health

AbstractIntroductionAs pleural inflammation plays a central role in pleural infection (PI), corticosteroids are increasingly being considered as a potential therapy. However, the timing of treatment and the identification of patients who might benefit most remain unresolved. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the inflammatory trajectories of children with PI.MethodsThis retrospective single‐center study included children aged 3 months to 17 years and 11 months hospitalized for PI due to Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Staphylococcus aureus over 10 years. An inflammatory rebound was defined biologically as a reincrease in C‐reactive protein (CRP) of at least 50 mg/L after an initial decrease in CRP of at least 50 mg/L.ResultsWe included 53 cases of PI, including 16 due to S. pyogenes, 27 due to S. pneumonia, and 10 due to S. aureus. An inflammatory rebound occurred in 20 patients (38%) after a median of 4.5 (3−6) days. This inflammatory rebound occurred in 9 (56%) children with S. pyogenes, 8 (30%) children with S. pneumonia, and 3 (30%) children with S. aureus. Children with an inflammatory rebound also had a higher rate of persistent fever after Day 7 and a longer length of stay (p = .01 for both).ConclusionWe postulate that the inflammatory rebound identified in nearly 40% of our patients corresponds to an early postinfectious inflammatory response, and thus that corticosteroids may be most beneficial for children with PI if administered early (between Days 2 and 5).

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