DOI: 10.3390/ijms25063248 ISSN: 1422-0067

Impact of TNF and IL-33 Cytokines on Mast Cells in Neuroinflammation

Pio Conti, Gianpaolo Ronconi, Dorina Lauritano, Filiberto Mastrangelo, Alessandro Caraffa, Carla E. Gallenga, Ilias Frydas, Spyridon K. Kritas, Francesco Carinci, Federico Gaudelli, Ciro Annicchiarico, Cristian D’Ovidio
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Spectroscopy
  • Molecular Biology
  • General Medicine
  • Catalysis

Mast cells (MCs) are derived from hematopoietic progenitors, mature in vascularized tissues, and participate in innate and acquired immunity. Neuroinflammation is a highly debated topic in the biomedical literature; however, the impact of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-33 on MCs in the brain has not been widely addressed. MCs can be activated by IgE binding to FcεRI, as well as by different antigens. After activation, MCs mediate various immunological and inflammatory responses through TNF and IL-33. TNF has two receptors: TNFR1, a p55 molecule, and TNFR2, a p75 molecule. This cytokine is the only one of its kind to be stored in the granules of MCs and can also be generated by de novo synthesis via mRNA. In the central nervous system (CNS), TNF is produced almost exclusively by microglial cells, neurons, astrocytes, and, minimally, by endothelial cells. After its release into brain tissue, TNF rapidly induces the adhesion molecules endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (ELAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) in endothelial cells. TNF causes the chemoattraction of neutrophils by inducing several molecules, including CXC chemokines (IL-8). Both MCs and microglial cells act as a primary barrier against foreign molecules in the CNS, producing pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-33. IL-33 belongs to the IL-1 family, is activated through the ST2L/IL1-RAcP receptor complex, and mediates both the innate and adaptive immune response. IL-33 is a nuclear transcription factor expressed in the brain, where it induces pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL-1) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, and CXCL10). Therefore, MCs and microglia in the CNS are a source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF and IL-33, that mediate many brain diseases. The inhibition of TNF and IL-33 may represent a new therapeutic approach that could complement existing neuroinflammatory therapies.

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