DOI: 10.3390/nu15143264 ISSN: 2072-6643

How Do Minerals, Vitamins, and Intestinal Microbiota Affect the Development and Progression of Heart Disease in Adult and Pediatric Patients?

Peet Brecht, James Curtis Dring, Felipe Yanez, Agnieszka Styczeń, Paulina Mertowska, Sebastian Mertowski, Ewelina Grywalska
  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide, far ahead of cancer. Epidemiological data emphasize the participation of many risk factors that increase the incidence of CVDs, including genetic factors, age, and sex, but also lifestyle, mainly nutritional irregularities and, connected with them, overweight and obesity, as well as metabolic diseases. Despite the importance of cardiovascular problems in the whole society, the principles of prevention of CVDs are not widely disseminated, especially among the youngest. As a result, nutritional neglect, growing from childhood and adolescence, translates into the occurrence of numerous disease entities, including CVDs, in adult life. This review aimed to draw attention to the role of selected minerals and vitamins in health and the development and progression of CVDs in adults and children. Particular attention was paid to the effects of deficiency and toxicity of the analyzed compounds in the context of the cardiovascular system and to the role of intestinal microorganisms, which by interacting with nutrients, may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disorders. We hope this article will draw the attention of society and the medical community to emphasize promoting healthy eating and proper eating habits in children and adults, translating into increased awareness and a reduced risk of CVD.

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