DOI: 10.1210/clinem/dgad225 ISSN: 0021-972X

Hormones and Aging: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement

Anne R Cappola, Richard J Auchus, Ghada El-Hajj Fuleihan, David J Handelsman, Rita R Kalyani, Michael McClung, Cynthia A Stuenkel, Michael O Thorner, Joseph G Verbalis
  • Biochemistry (medical)
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


Multiple changes occur across various endocrine systems as an individual ages. The understanding of the factors that cause age-related changes and how they should be managed clinically is evolving. This statement reviews the current state of research in the growth hormone, adrenal, ovarian, testicular, and thyroid axes, as well as in osteoporosis, vitamin D deficiency, type 2 diabetes, and water metabolism, with a specific focus on older individuals. Each section describes the natural history and observational data in older individuals, available therapies, clinical trial data on efficacy and safety in older individuals, key points, and scientific gaps. The goal of this statement is to inform future research that refines prevention and treatment strategies in age-associated endocrine conditions, with the goal of improving the health of older individuals.

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