DOI: 10.1002/advs.202305777 ISSN: 2198-3844

High‐Throughput Manufacturing of Multimodal Epidermal Mechanosensors with Superior Detectability Enabled by a Continuous Microcracking Strategy

Jianing An, Van Thai Tran, Hai Xu, Wenshuai Ma, Xingkuan Chen, Truong‐Son Dinh Le, Hejun Du, Gengzhi Sun, Young‐Jin Kim
  • General Physics and Astronomy
  • General Engineering
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
  • General Materials Science
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


Non‐invasive human‐machine interactions (HMIs) are expected to be promoted by epidermal tactile receptive devices that can accurately perceive human activities. In reality, however, the HMI efficiency is limited by the unsatisfactory perception capability of mechanosensors and the complicated techniques for device fabrication and integration. Herein, a paradigm is presented for high‐throughput fabrication of multimodal epidermal mechanosensors based on a sequential “femtosecond laser patterning‐elastomer infiltration‐physical transfer” process. The resilient mechanosensor features a unique hybrid sensing layer of rigid cellular graphitic flakes (CGF)‐soft elastomer. The continuous microcracking of CGF under strain enables a sharp reduction in conductive pathways, while the soft elastomer within the framework sustains mechanical robustness of the structure. As a result, the mechanosensor achieves an ultrahigh sensitivity in a broad strain range (GF of 371.4 in the first linear range of 0–50%, and maximum GF of 8922.6 in the range of 61–70%), a low detection limit (0.01%), and a fast response/recovery behavior (2.6/2.1 ms). The device also exhibits excellent sensing performances to multimodal mechanical stimuli, enabling high‐fidelity monitoring of full‐range human motions. As proof‐of‐concept demonstrations, multi‐pixel mechanosensor arrays are constructed and implemented in a robot hand controlling system and a security system, providing a platform toward efficient HMIs.

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