DOI: 10.1002/jmri.29251 ISSN: 1053-1807

Fractal Analysis of Left Ventricular Trabeculae in Patients with End‐Stage Renal Disease: A Random Survival Tree Analysis

Tian‐yi Zhang, Dong‐Aolei An, Hao Yan, Jieying Wang, Hang Zhou, Binghua Chen, Renhua Lu, Wei Fang, Qin Wang, Xiajing Che, Jiaying Huang, Haijiao Jin, Jianxiao Shen, Yin Zhou, Shan Mou, Jie Chen, Yan Fang, Lian‐Ming Wu
  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and imaging


The complexity of left ventricular (LV) trabeculae is related to the prognosis of several cardiovascular diseases.


To evaluate the prognostic value of LV trabecular complexity in patients with end‐stage renal disease (ESRD).

Study Type

Prospective outcome study.


207 participants on maintenance dialysis, divided into development (160 patients from 2 centers) and external validation (47 patients from a third center) cohorts, and 72 healthy controls.

Field Strength

3.0T, steady‐state free precession (SSFP) and modified Look‐Locker imaging sequences.


All participants had their trabecular complexity quantified by fractal analysis using cine SSFP images. Patients were followed up every 2 weeks until April 2023, or endpoint events happened. Random Forest (RF) and Cox regression models including age, diabetes, LV mass index, mean basal fractal dimension (FD), and left atrial volume index, were developed to predict major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Patients were divided into low‐ and high‐risk groups based on scores derived from the RF model and survival compared.

Statistical Tests

Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis; Kaplan–Meier survival analysis with log rank tests; Harrel's C‐index to assess model performance. A P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.


Fifty‐five patients (26.57%) experienced MACE during a median follow‐up time of 21.83 months. An increased mean basal FD (≥1.324) was associated with a significantly higher risk of MACE. The RF model (C‐index: 0.81) had significantly better discrimination than the Cox regression model (C‐index: 0.74). Participants of the external validation dataset classified into the high‐risk group had a hazard of experiencing MACE increased by 12.29 times compared to those in the low‐risk group.

Data Conclusion

LV basal FD was an independent predictor for MACE in patients with ESRD. Reliable risk stratification models could be generated based on LV basal FD and other MRI variables using RF analysis.

Level of Evidence


Technical Efficacy

Stage 2

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