DOI: 10.1111/eip.13463 ISSN:

Factor structure and measurement invariance of Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire—Brief Revised (Updated) in India

Sanjay Kumar, Charlie A. Davidson, Ranjeeta Jain, Reena Saini
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pshychiatric Mental Health



Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire‐Brief Revised‐Updated (SPQ‐BRU) is an easy‐to‐conduct, theoretically consistent, and psychometrically better measure of schizotypal personality. However, its study is limited to developed countries. Thus, in the present study, we tested the factor structure and measurement invariance of SPQ‐BRU in India.


A sample of 734 college students was selected from two sites (n = 614 from Muzaffarnagar in western Uttar Pradesh and n = 120 from Guhana in Haryana). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the good fitness of the different models of SPQ‐BRU and the measurement invariance across sex and region.


The first‐order nine‐factor model was a better‐fit model (among a set of first‐order and second‐order models), whereas the second‐order three‐factor model was a more parsimonious good‐fit model of SPQ‐BRU. The nine‐factor model was strongly invariant across sex and region. Women had higher social anxiety, ideas of reference, and lower constricted affect than men. Moreover, the Gohana sample was higher on several schizotypal personality facades than the Muzaffarnagar sample.


The present study supported the cross‐cultural validity of schizotypal personality and partially established a reliable and valid SPQ‐BRU‐Hindi language version.

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