DOI: 10.3390/life14030367 ISSN: 2075-1729

Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in Biofilm Samples and Clinical Association in Multiple Sclerosis Patients in Remission—A Pilot Study

Jakob Fehlhofer, Jutta Ries, Florian Tobias Nickel, Veit Rothhammer, Stefan Schwab, Marco Kesting, Mayte Buchbender
  • Paleontology
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of unknown etiology that affects the central nervous system and can lead to neurological impairment. Our aim was to determine whether MS patients also show inflammatory changes in the oral cavity more frequently than healthy individuals. For this purpose, we examined plaque samples for various mediators and their correlation with clinical findings. A study group (MS) and a control group were examined and compared. The plaque samples were analyzed for the expression of interleukins (IL-2, -6, -10), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-7, MMP-9), and a surface antigen CD90 by quantitative real-time PCR. The clinical parameters examined were the Mombelli plaque index; bleeding on probing (BOP) index; periodontal pocket depth; and decayed, missing, and filled tooth (DMFT) index. The expression of MMP9 was significantly (p = 0.035) higher in the control group. The expression of IL-2 was increased four-fold in the MS group; however, this difference was not statistically significant. The mean PD (p < 0.001) and BOP index (p = 0.029) values were increased in the study group. The clinical parameters of the BOP index and PD were significantly amplified in the MS patients. However, no causal relationship between the investigated inflammatory mediators and the clinical findings could be established in this case series.

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