DOI: 10.1002/jcph.2409 ISSN: 0091-2700

Exposure‐Response Relationships for Pralsetinib in Patients with RET‐Altered Thyroid Cancer or RET Fusion‐Positive Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

Nastya Kassir, David McDougall, Denison Kuruvilla, Sean Kim, Shaun Kumar, Ahmadur Rahman, Thorsten Ruf, Sravanthi Cheeti, Wendy Ankrom
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology


Pralsetinib is a highly potent oral kinase inhibitor of oncogenic RET (rearranged during transfection) fusions and mutations. Pralsetinib received approval from the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with metastatic RET fusion‐positive non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and received accelerated approval for the treatment of patients with RET fusion‐positive thyroid cancer. Exposure–response (ER) analyses of efficacy were performed separately in patients with thyroid cancer and in patients with NSCLC, but data for all patients were pooled for the safety analysis. ER models were developed with time‐varying exposure; the effect of covariates was also examined. For patients with NSCLC, a higher starting dose was associated with improved progression‐free survival (PFS), but this improvement did not correlate with a higher exposure overall. Significant covariates included sex and baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score. For patients with thyroid cancer, a higher exposure was associated with improved PFS. Significant covariates included prior systemic cancer therapy and ECOG score. For safety, higher exposure was associated with a greater risk of grade ≥3 anemia, pneumonia, and lymphopenia. Patients with an ECOG score of ≥1 had an increased risk of grade ≥3 pneumonia. Non‐White patients had a lower risk of grade ≥3 lymphopenia. ER analysis revealed that higher pralsetinib exposure was associated with improved PFS in thyroid cancer, but not in NSCLC. However, a higher starting dose (ie, 400 vs ≤300 mg daily) was correlated with better PFS for all indications. Higher exposure was also associated with an increased risk of grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs); however, the overall incidence of these events was acceptably low (≤20%). This analysis supports the use of a 400 mg starting dose of pralsetinib, allowing for dose reduction in the event of AEs.

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