Jiming Bai, Xu Sun, Shi Cao, Qingfeng Wang, Jiang Wu

Exploring the Timing of Disengagement From Nondriving Related Tasks in Scheduled Takeovers With Pre-Alerts: An Analysis of Takeover-Related Measures

  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Applied Psychology
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics

Objectives This study aimed to investigate drivers’ disengagement from nondriving related tasks (NDRT) during scheduled takeovers and to evaluate its impact on takeover performance. Background During scheduled takeovers, drivers typically have sufficient time to prepare. However, inadequate disengagement from NDRTs can introduce safety risks. Method Participants experienced scheduled takeovers using a driving simulator, undergoing two conditions, with and without an NDRT. We assessed their takeover performance and monitored their NDRT disengagement from visual, cognitive, and physical perspectives. Results The study examined three NDRT disengagement timings (DTs): DT1 (disengaged before the takeover request), DT2 (disengaged after the request but before taking over), and DT3 (not disengaged). The impact of NDRT on takeover performance varied depending on DTs. Specifically, DT1 demonstrated no adverse effects; DT2 impaired takeover time, while DT3 impaired both takeover time and quality. Additionally, participants who displayed DT1 exhibited longer eye-off-NDRT duration and a higher eye-off-NDRT count during the prewarning stage compared to those with DT2 and DT3. Conclusion Drivers can benefit from earlier disengagement from NDRTs, demonstrating resilience to the adverse effects of NDRTs on takeover performance. The disengagement of cognition is often delayed compared to that of eyes and hands, potentially leading to DT3. Moreover, visual disengagement from NDRTs during the prewarning stage could distinguish DT1 from the other two. Application Our study emphasizes considering NDRT disengagement in designing systems for scheduled takeovers. Measures should be taken to promote early disengagement, facilitate cognitive disengagement, and employ visual disengagement during the prewarning period as predictive indicators of DTs.

Need a simple solution for managing your BibTeX entries? Explore CiteDrive!

  • Web-based, modern reference management
  • Collaborate and share with fellow researchers
  • Integration with Overleaf
  • Comprehensive BibTeX/BibLaTeX support
  • Save articles and websites directly from your browser
  • Search for new articles from a database of tens of millions of references
Try out CiteDrive

More from our Archive