DOI: 10.3390/info14120642 ISSN: 2078-2489

Explainable Deep Learning Approach for Multi-Class Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Tumor Classification and Localization Using Gradient-Weighted Class Activation Mapping

Tahir Hussain, Hayaru Shouno
  • Information Systems

Brain tumors (BT) present a considerable global health concern because of their high mortality rates across diverse age groups. A delay in diagnosing BT can lead to death. Therefore, a timely and accurate diagnosis through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is crucial. A radiologist makes the final decision to identify the tumor through MRI. However, manual assessments are flawed, time-consuming, and rely on experienced radiologists or neurologists to identify and diagnose a BT. Computer-aided classification models often lack performance and explainability for clinical translation, particularly in neuroscience research, resulting in physicians perceiving the model results as inadequate due to the black box model. Explainable deep learning (XDL) can advance neuroscientific research and healthcare tasks. To enhance the explainability of deep learning (DL) and provide diagnostic support, we propose a new classification and localization model, combining existing methods to enhance the explainability of DL and provide diagnostic support. We adopt a pre-trained visual geometry group (pre-trained-VGG-19), scratch-VGG-19, and EfficientNet model that runs a modified form of the class activation mapping (CAM), gradient-weighted class activation mapping (Grad-CAM) and Grad-CAM++ algorithms. These algorithms, introduced into a convolutional neural network (CNN), uncover a crucial part of the classification and can provide an explanatory interface for diagnosing BT. The experimental results demonstrate that the pre-trained-VGG-19 with Grad-CAM provides better classification and visualization results than the scratch-VGG-19, EfficientNet, and cutting-edge DL techniques regarding visual and quantitative evaluations with increased accuracy. The proposed approach may contribute to reducing the diagnostic uncertainty and validating BT classification.

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