DOI: 10.3390/vaccines12030302 ISSN: 2076-393X

Evaluation of a Combined Live Attenuated Vaccine against Lumpy Skin Disease, Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia and Rift Valley Fever

Zohra Bamouh, Amal Elarkam, Soufiane Elmejdoub, Jihane Hamdi, Zineb Boumart, Greg Smith, Matthew Suderman, Mahder Teffera, Hezron Wesonga, Stephen Wilson, Douglas M. Watts, Shawn Babiuk, Brad Pickering, Mehdi Elharrak
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmacology
  • Immunology

The use of effective vaccines is among the most important strategies for the prevention and progressive control of transboundary infectious animal diseases. However, the use of vaccine is often impeded by the cost, a lack of cold chains and other factors. In resource-limited countries in Africa, one approach to improve coverage and reduce cost is to vaccinate against multiple diseases using combined vaccines. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate a combined vaccine for the prevention and control of Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD), Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Rift Valley fever (RVF). The LSD and CBPP were formulated as a combined vaccine, and the RVF was formulated separately as live attenuated vaccines. These consisted of a Mycoplasma MmmSC T1/44 strain that was propagated in Hayflick-modified medium, RVF virus vaccine, C13T strain prepared in African green monkey cells (Vero), and the LSDV Neethling vaccine strain prepared in primary testis cells. The vaccines were tested for safety via the subcutaneous route in both young calves and pregnant heifers with no side effect, abortion or teratogenicity. The vaccination of calves induced seroconversions for all three vaccines starting from day 7 post-vaccination (PV), with rates of 50% for LSD, 70% for CBPP and 100% for RVF, or rates similar to those obtained with monovalent vaccines. The challenge of cattle vaccinated with the LSD/CBPP and the RVF vaccine afforded full protection against virulent strains of LSDV and RVFV. A satisfactory level of protection against a CBPP challenge was observed, with 50% of protection at 6 months and 81% at 13 months PV. A mass vaccination trial was performed in four regions of Burkina Faso that confirmed safety and specific antibody responses induced by the vaccines. The multivalent LSD/CBPP+RVF vaccine provides a novel and beneficial approach to the control of the three diseases through one intervention and, therefore, reduces the cost and improves vaccination coverage.

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