DOI: 10.1002/solr.202301013 ISSN: 2367-198X

Enhanced Particle‐to‐Particle Interaction of Tin Oxide Electron Transporter Layer for Scalable Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells

Mohammad Reza Kokaba, Yameen Ahmed, Vishal Yeddu, Dongyang Zhang, Parinaz Moazzezi, Vahid Kamraninejad, Sergey Dayneko, Sean B. Reinecke, Augusto Amaro, Bohores Villarejo, Anju Shyla, Sardar Malek, Makhsud I. Saidaminov
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have exceeded 26% efficiency. One attribute of PSCs is their printability at relatively low temperatures, particularly advantageous for flexible solar cells. However, developing efficient, fully printable flexible PSCs on rough and soft plastic substrates remains a challenge. Here we report efficient flexible PSCs fabricated by only scalable methods in ambient conditions. We first identified the source of the issue in fabricating flexible PSCs – the presence of charge carrier shorting pathways within electron transport layer (ETL) due to incomplete coverage of surface of flexible substrates. To address this challenge, we modified the ETL deposition ink with a phase‐transfer catalyst, often used in synthetic organic chemistry. Dynamic light scattering and nuclear‐magnetic resonance studies show that the catalyst enhances ETL particle‐to‐particle interaction in the ink, eventually leading to conformal coverage of rough flexible substrates. As a result, we demonstrate a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.6% for all‐scalable flexible n–i–p structured PSCs based on methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3), among the highest reported to date for fully scalable flexible PSCs, all fabricated in ambient air.

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