DOI: 10.3390/biom14030318 ISSN: 2218-273X

Effects of Different Capsulotomy and Fragmentation Energy Levels on the Generation of Oxidative Stress Following Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Cataract Surgery

Sang Beom Han, Yu-Chi Liu, Melina Setiawan, Isabelle Xin Yu Lee, Moushmi Patil, Hon Shing Ong, Jodhbir S. Mehta
  • Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry

Purpose. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different capsulotomy and fragmentation energy levels on the production of oxidative free radicals following femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) with a low-energy platform. Methods. The experimental study included 60 porcine eyes (12 groups). In each group, capsulotomies with 90% or 150% energy, and fragmentations with 90%, 100%, or 150% energy or 150% with high spot density, respectively, were performed. Control samples were obtained from non-lasered eyes at the beginning (five eyes) and end (five eyes) of the experiment. In the clinical study, 104 eyes were divided into 5 groups, and they received conventional phacoemulsification (20 eyes), FLACS with 90% capsulotomy and 100% fragmentation energy levels without NSAIDs (16 eyes), FLACS with 90% (26 eyes) or 150% (22 eyes) capsulotomy energy levels, respectively, with a 100% fragmentation energy level and NSAIDs, and FLACS with 90% capsulotomy and 150% fragmentation energy levels and NSAIDs (20 eyes). Aqueous samples were analyzed for their malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. Results. In the experimental study, there were no significant differences in the MDA and SOD levels between the groups with different capsulotomy energy levels. An increase in the fragmentation energy from 100% to 150% led to significantly higher MDA levels in the groups with both 90% (p = 0.04) and 150% capsulotomy energy levels (p = 0.03), respectively. However, increased laser spot densities did not result in significant changes in MDA or SOD levels. In the clinical study, all four of the FLACS groups showed higher MDA levels than the conventional group. Similarly, the increase in the fragmentation energy from 100% to 150% resulted in significantly elevated levels of MDA and SOD, respectively. Conclusions. Although increasing the FSL capsulotomy energy level may not have increased free radicals, higher fragmentation energy levels increased the generation of aqueous free radicals. However, fragmentation with high spot density did not generate additional oxidative stress. Increased spot density did not generate additional oxidative stress, and this can be helpful for dense cataracts.

More from our Archive