DOI: 10.1002/pmic.202400012 ISSN: 1615-9853

Dysregulated proteome and N‐glycoproteome in ALG1‐deficient fibroblasts

Rohit Budhraja, Neha Joshi, Silvia Radenkovic, Tamas Kozicz, Eva Morava, Akhilesh Pandey
  • Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry


Asparagine‐linked glycosylation 1 protein is a β‐1,4‐mannosyltransferase, is encoded by the ALG1 gene, which catalyzes the first step of mannosylation in N‐glycosylation. Pathogenic variants in ALG1 cause a rare autosomal recessive disorder termed as ALG1‐CDG. We performed a quantitative proteomics and N‐glycoproteomics study in fibroblasts derived from patients with one homozygous and two compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in ALG1. Several proteins that exhibited significant upregulation included insulin‐like growth factor II and pleckstrin, whereas hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1 was downregulated. These proteins are crucial for cell growth, survival and differentiation. Additionally, we observed a decrease in the expression of mitochondrial proteins and an increase in autophagy‐related proteins, suggesting mitochondrial and cellular stress. N‐glycoproteomics revealed the reduction in high‐mannose and complex/hybrid glycopeptides derived from numerous proteins in patients explaining that defect in ALG1 has broad effects on glycosylation. Further, we detected an increase in several short oligosaccharides, including chitobiose (HexNAc2) trisaccharides (Hex‐HexNAc2) and novel tetrasaccharides (NeuAc‐Hex‐HexNAc2) derived from essential proteins including LAMP1, CD44 and integrin. These changes in glycosylation were observed in all patients irrespective of their gene variants. Overall, our findings not only provide novel molecular insights into understanding ALG1‐CDG but also offer short oligosaccharide‐bearing peptides as potential biomarkers.

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