Ioanna Zota, Konstantina Chanoumidou, Ioannis Charalampopoulos, Achille Gravanis

Dynamics of myelin deficits in the 5xFAD mouse model for Alzheimer's disease and the protective role of BDNF

  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Neurology

AbstractRecent findings highlight myelin breakdown as a decisive early event in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) acting as aggravating factor of its progression. However, it is still unclear whether myelin loss is attributed to increased oligodendrocyte vulnerability, reduced repairing capacity or toxic stimuli. In the present study, we sought to clarify the starting point of myelin disruption accompanied with Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell (OPC) elimination in the brain of the 5xFAD mouse model of AD at 6 months of age in Dentate Gyrus of the hippocampus in relation to neurotrophin system. Prominent inflammation presence was detected since the age of 6 months playing a key role in myelin disturbance and AD progression. Expression analysis of neurotrophin receptors in OPCs was performed to identify new targets that could increase myelination in health and disease. OPCs in both control and 5xFAD mice express TrkB, TrkC and p75 receptors but not TrkA. Brain‐derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that binds to TrkB receptor is well‐known about its pro‐myelination effect, promoting oligodendrocytes proliferation and differentiation, so we focused our investigation on its effects in OPCs under neurodegenerative conditions. Our in vitro results showed that BDNF rescues OPCs from death and promotes their proliferation and differentiation in presence of the toxic Amyloid‐β 1‐42. Collectively, our results indicate that BDNF possess an additional neuroprotective role through its actions on oligodendrocytic component and its use could be proposed as a drug‐based myelin‐enhancing strategy, complementary to amyloid and tau centered therapies in AD.

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