DOI: 10.3390/ijms25063135 ISSN: 1422-0067

Differential Impact of CD43 and CD28 on T-Cell Differentiation Depending on the Order of Engagement with the TCR

Monserrat Alba Sandoval-Hernández, Nora Alma Fierro, José Ignacio Veytia-Bucheli, Den Alejandro Alvarado-Velázquez, Estefanía Alemán-Navarro, Erika Melchy-Pérez, Constance Auvynet, Iván Imaz-Rosshandler, Jorge Carneiro, Ernesto Perez-Rueda, Yvonne Rosenstein
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Spectroscopy
  • Molecular Biology
  • General Medicine
  • Catalysis

The combination of signals from the T-cell receptor (TCR) and co-stimulatory molecules triggers transcriptional programs that lead to proliferation, cytokine secretion, and effector functions. We compared the impact of engaging the TCR with CD28 and/or CD43 at different time points relative to TCR engagement on T-cell function. TCR and CD43 simultaneous engagement resulted in higher CD69 and PD-1 expression levels than in TCR and CD28-stimulated cells, with a cytokine signature of mostly effector, inflammatory, and regulatory cytokines, while TCR and CD28-activated cells secreted all categories of cytokines, including stimulatory cytokines. Furthermore, the timing of CD43 engagement relative to TCR ligation, and to a lesser degree that of CD28, resulted in distinct patterns of expression of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Complete cell activation was observed when CD28 or CD43 were engaged simultaneously with or before the TCR, but ligating the TCR before CD43 or CD28 failed to complete a cell activation program regarding cytokine secretion. As the order in which CD43 or CD28 and the TCR were engaged resulted in different combinations of cytokines that shape distinct T-cell immune programs, we analyzed their upstream sequences to assess whether the combinations of cytokines were associated with different sets of regulatory elements. We found that the order in which the TCR and CD28 or CD43 are engaged predicts the recruitment of specific sets of chromatin remodelers and TFSS, which ultimately regulate T-cell polarization and plasticity. Our data underscore that the combination of co-stimulatory molecules and the time when they are engaged relative to the TCR can change the cell differentiation program.

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