DOI: 10.1093/geront/gnae008 ISSN: 0016-9013

Diagnostic Accuracy of the FRAIL Scale, Groningen Frailty Indicator, Tilburg Frailty Indicator, and PRISMA-7 for Frailty Screening Among Older Adults in Community Settings: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis

Nhi Thi Vo, Yu-Kang Tu, Kuan-Chia Lin, Hsiao-Yean Chiu, Hui-Chuan Huang
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Gerontology
  • General Medicine


Background and Objectives

This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of four questionnaire-based tools (i.e., the FRAIL scale, Groningen Frailty Indicator [GFI], Tilburg Frailty Indicator [TFI], and PRISMA-7) for screening frailty in older adults.

Research Design and Methods

Four databases comprising the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, PubMed, and ProQuest were searched from inception to June 20, 2023. Study quality comprising risks of bias and applicability were assessed via a QUADAS-2 questionnaire. A bivariate network meta-analysis model and Youden's index were performed to identify the optimal tool and cutoff points.


In total, 20 studies comprising 13 for FRAIL, seven for GFI, six for TFI, and five for PRISMA-7 were included. Regarding study quality appraisal, all studies had high risks of bias for study quality assessment domains. Values of the pooled sensitivity of the FRAIL scale, GFI, TFI, and PRISMA-7 were 0.58, 0.74, 0.66, and 0.73, respectively. Values of the pooled specificity of the FRAIL scale, GFI, TFI, and PRISMA-7 were 0.92, 0.77, 0.84, and 0.86, respectively. The Youden’s index indicated was obtained for the FRAIL scale with a cutoff of two points (Youden’s index = 0.65), indicating that the FRAIL scale with a cutoff of two points was the optimal tool for frailty screening in older adults.

Discussion and Implications

The FRAIL scale comprising five self-assessed items is a suitable tool to interview older adults for early frailty detection in community settings; it has advantages of being short, simple, and easy to respond to.

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