Hong Li, Huiping Lin, Jiajun Li, Kaixin Chen, Zanhong Chen, Jianye Zhang, Yan Huang, Xin zhao, Huihui Ti, Yiwen Tao

Design, Synthesis and Anti-cancer Evaluation of Nitrogen-containing Derivatives of 30-Carboxyl of Gambogic Acid

  • Cancer Research
  • Pharmacology
  • Molecular Medicine

Background:: Gambogic acid (GA) is a natural product from the resin of the Garcinia species, which showed significant activity in the induction of apoptosis. It can be one promising lead compound for the design and synthesis of new anticancer drugs. Objective:: The objective of the current study is to design novel nitrogen-contained GA derivatives with better anti-cancer activities and study the effect of the introduction of different nitrogen-contained groups on the activity of GA. Methods:: The designed 15 derivatives were synthesized via esterification or amidation of 30-carboxylate. The synthetic compounds were characterized via different spectroscopic techniques, including X-ray single crystal diffraction, MS and NMR. The cytotoxic activity of the designed derivatives was evaluated in vitro against A549, HepG-2, and MCF-7 cell lines using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) test. Results:: 15 nitrogen-contained GA derivatives were successfully synthesized and established. Based on the IC50 values, compounds 9, 10, 11 and 13 showed stronger inhibitory effects on A549, HepG-2, MCF-7 cell lines than GA, while 9 is the most active compound with IC50 value of 0.64-1.49 μM. Most derivatives of GA with esterification of C-30 including cyano-benzene ring were generally weaker than those of pyrimidinyl-substituted derivatives. In addition, length of alkyl linkers between C-30 of GA and nitrogen-contained group produced different effects on A549, HepG-2 and MCF-7 cell lines. Conclusion:: The structure-activity relationship results show that aromatic substituent and linker length play important roles to improve the anticancer activities, while compound 9 with pyrimidine substituent and C-C-C linkers is the most active derivative against tested cell lines, and is a promising anti-cancer agent for further development.

Need a simple solution for managing your BibTeX entries? Explore CiteDrive!

  • Web-based, modern reference management
  • Collaborate and share with fellow researchers
  • Integration with Overleaf
  • Comprehensive BibTeX/BibLaTeX support
  • Save articles and websites directly from your browser
  • Search for new articles from a database of tens of millions of references
Try out CiteDrive

More from our Archive