Matúš Vaňko, Ivan Glesk, Jarmila Müllerová, Jozef Dubovan, Milan Dado

Design, Optimization, and Experimental Evaluation of Slow Light Generated by π-Phase-Shifted Fiber Bragg Grating for Use in Sensing Applications

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Analytical Chemistry

This paper describes design, theoretical analysis, and experimental evaluation of a π-Phase-Shifted Fiber Bragg Grating (π-PSFBG) inscribed in the standard telecom fiber for slow light generation. At first, the grating was designed for its use in the reflection mode with a central wavelength of 1552 nm and a pass band width of less than 100 pm. The impact of fabrication imperfections was experimentally investigated and compared to model predictions. The optical spectra obtained experimentally show that the spectral region used for slow light generation is narrower (less than 10 pm), thus allowing for too-low levels of slow light optical-output power. In the next step, the optimization of the grating design was conducted to account for fabrication errors, to improve the grating’s spectral behavior and its temporal performance, and to widen the spectral interval for slow light generation in the grating’s transmission mode. The targeted central wavelength was 1553 nm. The π-PSFBG was then commercially fabricated, and the achieved parameters were experimentally investigated. For the region of (1551–1554) nm, a 15-fold increase in the grating’s pass band width was achieved. We have shown that a pair of retarded optical pulses were generated. The measured group delay was found to be ~10.5 ps (compared to 19 ps predicted by the model). The π-PSFBG operating in its transmission mode has the potential to operate as tunable delay line for applications in RF photonics, ultra-fast signal processing, and optical communications, where tunable high precision delay lines are highly desirable. The π-PSFBG can be designed and used for the generation of variable group delays from tens to hundreds of ps, depending on application needs.

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