Alejandro Rubiales-Martínez, Joel Martínez, Elvia Mera-Jiménez, Javier Pérez-Flores, Guillermo Téllez-Isaías, René Miranda Ruvalcaba, Maricarmen Hernández-Rodríguez, Teresa Mancilla Percino, Martha Edith Macías Pérez, María Inés Nicolás-Vázquez

Design of Two New Sulfur Derivatives of Perezone: In Silico Study Simulation Targeting PARP-1 and In Vitro Study Validation Using Cancer Cell Lines

  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Spectroscopy
  • Molecular Biology
  • General Medicine
  • Catalysis

Poly-ADP-Ribose Polymerase (PARP-1) is an overexpressed enzyme in several carcinomas; consequently, the design of PARP-1 inhibitors has acquired special attention. Hence, in the present study, three compounds (8–10) were produced through a Michael addition protocol, using phenylmethanethiol, 5-fluoro-2-mercaptobenzyl alcohol, and 4-mercaptophenylacetic acid, respectively, as nucleophiles and perezone as the substrate, expecting them to be convenient candidates that inhibit PARP-1. It is convenient to note that in the first stage of the whole study, the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and the quantum chemistry studies of four secondary metabolites, i.e., perezone (1), perezone angelate (2), hydroxyperezone (3), and hydroxyperezone monoangelate (4), were performed, to investigate their interactions in the active site of PARP-1. Complementarily, a docking study of a set of eleven sulfur derivatives of perezone (5–15) was projected to explore novel compounds, with remarkable affinity to PARP-1. The molecules 8–10 provided the most adequate results; therefore, they were evaluated in vitro to determine their activity towards PARP-1, with 9 having the best IC50 (0.317 µM) value. Additionally, theoretical calculations were carried out using the density functional theory (DFT) with the hybrid method B3LYP with a set of base functions 6-311++G(d,p), and the reactivity properties were compared between the natural derivatives of perezone and the three synthesized compounds, and the obtained results exhibited that 9 has the best properties to bind with PARP-1. Finally, it is important to mention that 9 displays significant inhibitory activity against MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells, i.e., 145.01 and 83.17 µM, respectively.

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