Suyeon Kim, Hyunsik Bae, Hyun-Soo Kim

Dedifferentiated Leiomyosarcoma of the Uterine Corpus with Heterologous Component: Clinicopathological Analysis of Five Consecutive Cases from a Single Institution and Comprehensive Literature Review

  • Clinical Biochemistry

Dedifferentiation is a very rare phenomenon in uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS). The aim of this study was to comprehensively analyze the clinicopathological characteristics of uterine dedifferentiated LMS (DDLMS). We reviewed electronic medical records and pathology slides from five patients with uterine DDLMS and performed immunostaining. The mean age of the patients was 56 years. Two patients presented with abdominal discomfort, while in three cases the uterine tumors were detected on routine medical examination. The mean size of the tumors was 17.0 cm. Four patients underwent hysterectomy. The initial stages were distributed as IB (2/5), IIIC (2/5), and IVC (1/5). Post-operative concurrent chemoradiation therapy, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy were administered in one, one, and two patients, respectively. Despite post-operative treatment, three patients developed metastatic recurrences in the abdominal and pelvic organs. Recurrence-free survival time ranged between 4 and 30 months. Histologically, the differentiated areas demonstrated the classic morphology of malignant smooth muscle differentiation, whereas the dedifferentiated areas resembled undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma and were characterized by large pleomorphic tumor cells admixed with haphazardly arranged atypical cells with marked nuclear pleomorphism. All cases also exhibited heterologous components, including chondrosarcoma (CSA; 3/5) and rhabdomyosarcoma (2/5). In two cases, the heterologous components were initially detected in primary tumors. In three cases, the primary tumors did not exhibit any dedifferentiated or heterologous components. Instead, more than half of the recurrent tumors consisted of heterologous components. Three cases showed a sharp demarcation between the LMS and CSA components, while in two cases the dedifferentiated area imperceptibly merged with the differentiated component. Immunostaining revealed that the dedifferentiated components exhibited a lack of desmin immunoreactivity in three of the four examined cases. A subset of uterine LMS represents various amounts and types of dedifferentiation and heterologous components in both primary and recurrent tumors. Routine recognition of DDLMS and distinction from its mimickers are required for accurate diagnosis and further characterization of these rare tumors.

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