Carmen Álvarez-Roa, María Álvarez-Roa, Thiago R. Raddo, Antonio Jurado-Navas, Miguel Castillo-Vázquez

Cooperative Terrestrial–Underwater FSO System: Design and Performance Analysis

  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Instrumentation
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

In this paper, we propose, design, and evaluate a new hybrid terrestrial–underwater optical communication link for providing high-speed connectivity between land and underwater systems. A device based on an amplify-and-forward strategy is considered and used for the hybrid optical link. A performance analysis of the proposed hybrid system is then carried out, taking into account both the atmospheric and underwater channels and their respective degradation sources. Different networking scenarios and conditions are evaluated. To this end, the channel model of the terrestrial free-space optical (FSO) link is modeled using the Gamma–Gamma distribution, while the underwater optical link is modeled using the Weibull distribution. The former takes into account atmospheric and turbulence attenuation, geometric spread and pointing errors, while the latter takes into account underwater and turbulence attenuation and geometric spread. Accordingly, a new analytical closed-form expression for the bit error rate (BER), which depends on the cumulative distribution function of the holistic hybrid system, is derived. Analytical results show that pointing errors as well as atmospheric and oceanic turbulence seriously degrade the performance of the hybrid system. In addition, ocean turbulence leads to the occurrence of a BER floor in some scenarios. This is the first time that such a network is proposed and modeled under the assumption of critical channel impairments.

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