DOI: 10.4103/uros.uros_108_22 ISSN: 1879-5226

Contemporary Management of Large and Complex Renal Calculi: Have we found the Perfect Solution Yet?

Yung-Hao Liu, Ching-Heng Yen, Yi-Sheng Tai, Tai-Lung Cha, Guang-Huan Sun, Dah-Shyong Yu, Sheng-Tang Wu
  • Urology


This review provides a thorough overview of contemporary treatment strategies for complex renal calculi, including large-volume stones, stones with increased hardness and greater number, or stones with abnormal anatomy. The development of tailored treatment plans for stone removal is essential for treatment success. A literature search was conducted on PubMed using the Keyword “complex renal calculi” along with “percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL),” “retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS),” “endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery (ECIRS),” “stone free rate,” and “complications.” Based on the findings, the use of “minimally invasive PCNL,” “multiple-tract PCNL,” “staged RIRS,” and “ECIRS” is proposed in addition to the traditional PCNL suggested using the European Association of Urology guidelines. Renal calculi in patients with solitary kidneys or who underwent kidney transplants are considered to be complex, and treatment options that allow preservation of their remaining renal function should be considered.

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