Kyle W Beggs, Alain J Kassab, Michael Colletta, Yue Yu, Lena F Kourkoutis, Ahmed A Darwish, Lucille A Giannuzzi

Conjugate Multimode Heat Transfer Analysis of Cryogenic EXLO Manipulation

  • Instrumentation

Abstract In this study, a conjugate radiation/conduction multimode heat transfer analysis of cryogenic focused ion beam (FIB) milling steps necessary for producing ex situ lift out specimens under cryogenic conditions (cryo-EXLO) is performed. Using finite volume for transient heat conduction and enclosure theory for radiation heat transfer, the analysis shows that as long as the specimen is attached or touching the FIB side wall trenches, the specimen will remain vitreous indefinitely, while actively cooled at liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperatures. To simulate the time needed to perform a transfer step to move the bulk sample containing the FIB-thinned specimen from the cryo-FIB to the cryo-EXLO cryostat, the LN2 temperature active cooling is turned off after steady-state conditions are reached and the specimen is monitored over time until the critical devitrification temperature is reached. Under these conditions, the sample will remain vitreous for >3 min, which is more than enough time needed to perform the cryo-transfer step from the FIB to the cryostat, which takes only ∼10 s. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy images of a manipulated cryo-EXLO yeast specimen prepared with cryo-FIB corroborates the heat transfer analysis.

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