DOI: 10.3390/app13158919 ISSN: 2076-3417

Comprehensive Review of Electric Vehicle Technology and Its Impacts: Detailed Investigation of Charging Infrastructure, Power Management, and Control Techniques

Madhav Kumar, Kaibalya Prasad Panda, Ramasamy T. Naayagi, Ritula Thakur, Gayadhar Panda
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • General Engineering
  • Instrumentation
  • General Materials Science

Electric vehicles (EVs) are universally recognized as an incredibly effective method of lowering gas emissions and dependence on oil for transportation. Electricity, rather than more traditional fuels like gasoline or diesel, is used as the main source of energy to recharge the batteries in EVs. Future oil demand should decline as a result of the predicted rise in the number of EVs on the road. The charging infrastructure is considered as a key element of EV technology where the recent research is mostly focused. A strong charging infrastructure that serves both urban and rural areas, especially those with an unstable or nonexistent electrical supply, is essential in promoting the global adoption of EVs. Followed by different EV structures such as fuel-cell- and battery-integrated EVs, the charging infrastructures are thoroughly reviewed in three modes, specifically—off-grid (standalone), grid-connected, and hybrid modes (capable of both standalone and grid-connected operations). It will be interesting for the readers to understand in detail several energy-source-based charging systems and the usage of charging stations for different power levels. Towards the improvement of the lifetime and efficiency of EVs, charging methods and charging stations in integration with microgrid architectures are thoroughly investigated. EVs are a multi-energy system, which requires effective power management and control to optimize energy utilization. This review article also includes an evaluation of several power management and control strategies followed by the impact assessment of EVs on the utility grid. The findings and the future research directions provided in this review article will be extremely beneficial for EV operators and research engineers.

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