DOI: 10.1121/10.0025177 ISSN: 0001-4966

Comprehensive analysis of the seismic wave fields generated by offshore pile driving: A case study at the BARD Offshore 1 offshore wind farm

Tobias Bohne, Tanja Grießmann, Raimund Rolfes
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)

Offshore pile driving not only generates high sound pressure levels, but also induces ground vibrations and particle motions that have the potential to affect fish and invertebrates living near or in the seabed. In particular, the seismic wave field in the form of interface waves is thought to be responsible for causing these particle motions and ground vibrations. However, the magnitude and spatial extent of the seismic wave field resulting from pile driving has not been clearly established. To fill this knowledge gap, this paper analyzes and illustrates in detail the seismic wave field at a construction site of the BARD Offshore 1 wind farm. For this purpose, the measured data from the construction site are compared to the results of a seismo-acoustic model. The measured and modeled data in combination provides a potential benchmark case for subsequent studies and other authors. The computed seismic wave field is investigated in terms of wave generation, mode composition, and propagation range of individual modes. The different seismic wave forms and their contribution to the particle motions in the seabed vicinity are discussed. The results indicate that, for the considered case, interface waves dominate the particle motion at the seafloor level up to a distance of 200 m.

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