DOI: 10.4103/ija.ija_706_23 ISSN: 0019-5049

Comparison between perfusion index, pleth variability index, and pulse pressure variability for prediction of hypotension during major abdominal surgery under general anaesthesia: A prospective observational study

Satheesh Gunashekar, Ashutosh Kaushal, Ajit Kumar, Priyanka Gupta, Namrata Gupta, Pooja C.S.
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Background and Aims:

Short-term hypotension after general anaesthesia can negatively impact surgical outcomes. This study compared the predictive potential of the pleth variability index (PVI), pulse pressure variability (PPV), and perfusion index (PI) for anaesthesia-induced hypotension. This study’s primary objective was to evaluate the predictive potential of PI, PVI, and PPV for hypotension.


This observational study included 140 adult patients undergoing major abdominal surgery under general anaesthesia. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, PVI, PPV, and PI were collected at 1-min intervals up to 20 min post anaesthesia induction. Hypotension was assessed at 5-min and 15-min intervals. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to determine the diagnostic performance and best cut-off for continuous variables in predicting a dichotomous outcome. Statistical significance was kept at P < 0.05.


Hypotension prevalence within 5 and 15 min of anaesthesia induction was 36.4% and 45%, respectively. A PI cut-off of <3.5 had an area under the ROC curve (AUROC) of 0.647 (P = 0.004) for a 5-min hypotension prediction. The PVI’s AUROC was 0.717 (P = 0.001) at cut-off >11.5, while PPV’s AUROC was 0.742 (P = 0.001) at cut-off >12.5. At 15 min, PVI’s AUROC was 0.615 (95% confidence interval 0.521–0.708, P = 0.020), with 54.9% positive predictive value and 65.2% negative predictive value.


PVI, PPV, and PI predicted hypotension within 5 min after general anaesthesia induction. PVI had comparatively higher accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value than PI and PPV when predicting hypotension at 15 min.

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