Simi Thankappan, Sherin Nedumpillil, Valsa Thomas

Clinicopathologic features and risk factors associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC): A comprehensive descriptive study analyzing the burden of OSCC in a tertiary-level hospital in North Kerala, India

  • Oncology

Abstract Background: Oral cancer is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide, and India shows a high incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cases. Kerala accounts for a sizeable number of these cases, most of which can be attributed to the deleterious habits prevalent in a vast majority of the population. A comprehensive descriptive–prospective study was done in our institution over 18 months to identify the possible risk factors, to describe the clinical and sociodemographic variables of OSCC, and to understand the burden of this dreaded disease in the North Kerala population. Materials and Methods: Data collection was done using a structured pro forma. The data were tabulated and organized; uni- and bivariate analysis were performed along with cross-tabulations for various parameters and relevant variables. A total of 243 histopathologically confirmed cases of OSCC during 18 months comprised the sample in this study. Results: Among the 243 cases, 220 patients had deleterious habits. Betel chewing was the most predominant habit. Buccal mucosa was the commonly affected site. Twenty-three patients had no history of any habits. Majority of the patients presented in stage 3 and 4 of the disease. Moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was the major histologic type. Conclusion: The majority of the patients had clinical lesions corresponding to the habit usage, showing a low awareness of tobacco cessation and intervention programs and a high burden of OSCC in the North Kerala population.

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